If you have arrived here then please note that, as the sign indicates, this is work in progress. The first reasonable draft is unlikely to be available until February 2018.
There are full-blown books at one end of the reading spectrum and small articles or blogs, usually on the Internet, at the other end. This potted history sits somewhere in the middle. The sole objective is to give the reader a taste for the subject. Hopefully, there are sufficient links within the text and information in the bibliography section to allow the reader to delve further if he or she is interested.
As there is already quite a lot of literature on the history of football, both in books and on the Internet, why have I bothered to add to the list? The only weak excuse that I can offer is that the desire to pen something on this subject betrays signs of my misspent youth!
I would appreciate any assistance with the following:
- I am missing the dates that the Liverpool Business Houses League and the Liverpool CYMS League were founded
- the section on the beginnings of grassroots soccer focuses on Liverpool. If anybody can provide similar information for another town or city then I will add it and acknowledge your contribution.
Ball games sprang up independently in various parts of the world from the earliest times. The ancient Greeks, Romans, Chinese and Mesoamericans all played some sort of ball game. In medieval Britain, a chaotic game with sometimes hundreds of players involved, now termed “mob football”, was played on festive days. More skilful, informal games with modest numbers of players were also played but references to them seldom appear in historical records.
Public schools began to play football around the middle of the 18th century. Each school had its own rules. While handling the ball and kicking it appeared in the rules of all schools, some favoured handling while others preferred kicking. The first attempts at producing a common set of rules took place at Cambridge University and in Sheffield around the middle of the 19th century.
Young men from public schools and universities who ultimately found themselves working in London, and who wanted to play football, similarly sought to agree on a common set of rules. At a meeting in London the Football Association (FA) was founded in 1863, and within a couple of months a basic set of rules were agreed for association football, as it was subsequently to be known. This turned out to be the birth of the modern game of soccer. A kicking game with a very limited amount of handling was agreed upon. Those who could not accept the decision resigned from the newly born Football Association, and the Rugby Football Union was formed in 1871 for those who wanted a handling game. A steady stream of changes to the laws were implemented over the first twenty years of the FA, including the abolition of handling.
Gentleman amateurs, as these young men were known, dominated the game of association football until the late 1880s. However, the game was becoming popular with the working man, and by 1885 professional players who could not afford to play simply for the love of the game had appeared in the North and the Midlands. The setting up of the professional Football League in 1888 was quickly followed by other adult leagues, schoolboy football, the first very tentative steps in the women’s game and the beginnings of grassroots football.
Around the same time football was in the process of being adopted in other countries, and FIFA was formed in 1904 to oversee the growing global game. It mandated that matches should be played according to the FA’s laws of the game. The FA had a decidely on-off relationship with FIFA. In particular, it was not a member between 1928 and 1946, and so it missed the first three World Cup competitions in the 1930s.
The tactical side of the game advanced in other countries during this period, a fact which the English seemed to be unaware of. The effects were felt when the national side was heavily beaten by Hungary in 1953 and 1954. Coaching subsequently assumed a greater degree of importance, helping England to win the World Cup in 1966 and English clubs to win their first European trophies around the same time.
Meanwhile, the gentleman amateur had largely disappeared by the 1920s, and a more pragmatic form of amateurism surfaced. The elite amateur game grew in popularity, peaking in the 1950s, but it subsequently declined and went on to total extinction in 1974 when everybody became just players.
The maximum wage in the professional game, which had been in operation since the 1890s, was abolished in 1961. This saw a marked downturn in the fortunes of the small town clubs and the inexorable move towards the pre-eminence of the big city clubs. Finance was the key factor in the success of any club and sponsorship and TV deals for live matches became of paramount importance. It ultimately led to the first division clubs resigning from the Football League and joining the new FA Premier League in 1991. Big city clubs have totally dominated the scene since then, most notably Manchester United, Chelsea and Arsenal.
In the early twenty first century the FA has seen financial success with the Premier League, overseen a growth in the popularity of women’s football and introduced its Charter Standard at the grassroots level. On the downside, the men’s eleven-a-side game at the grassroots level is much diminished.
.. The early years of the FA
.. The gentleman amateurs across the country
.. Club origins
.. Early match officials
.. The amateur ethos
.. Corinthian FC
.. Elite amateur football outside London and the Home Counties
.. Conditions for mass participation
.. The arrival of the professionals
.. The formation of other leagues
.. The introduction of the FA Amateur Cup
.. The spread of the game, FIFA and IFAB
.. The beginnings of schoolboy football
.. Women’s football (I)
.. The beginnings of grassroots football
.. Works teams
.. Leagues for the London elite amateurs
.. The split
.. Early attendance figures
1945 to the early 21st century
.. Picking up the pieces after World War II
.. Tactics from the 1930s to the 1960s
.. Sunday league football
.. Elite amateur football in the post-war period
.. The professional game from the 1960s
…. Football League changes from the late 1950s to 1987
…. The road to the pre-eminence of the big city clubs
…. On the field
.. Women’s football (II)
.. Towards the FA pyramid
.. The FA in the early 21st century
Ball games date back to pre-history in various parts of the world, although the first written reference in England occurs in the 9th century CE. While it is probable that there were several forms of football that were played in subsequent centuries it is mob football, a somewhat violent and chaotic game, which grabbed most of the headlines.
Handling and kicking variants of football appeared in public schools around the middle of the 18th century, each school having its own rules. Early attempts to produce a common set of rules came out of Cambridge University and Sheffield around the middle of the 19th century before London clubs formed the Football Association in 1863 and produced the initial laws of what is now the modern game of association football.
It seems to be something of a popular pastime among historians and writers, a sort of Holy Grail if you like, to try to identify the beginnings of football. Research has shown that peoples across the globe invented ball games quite independently of each other, a fact that seems perfectly credible to my untutored eye. However, making a case that present day football descends from any of these games is in the realms of speculation. Anyway, let us start by briefly mentioning some of these very early ball games with the caveat that our knowledge of their precise rules tends to be sketchy at best.
FIFA, in its Origins of Football, has determined that the first instance of a kicking game was the Chinese game of Tsu’ Chu (or Cuju). The objective was to kick a ball between two tall bamboo canes which were only 30-40cm apart into a net, while withstanding the attacks of opponents. It was part of the military training during the Han dynasty. FIFA dates it back to the 2nd/3rd century BCE, although other sources consider that it was in existence in earlier times.
In Europe the earliest references involve the ancient Greeks around the 5th / 6th century BCE. Episkyros can be considered to be similar(ish) to rugby in the sense that it was mainly a handling game where the objective was to get the ball over the opponent’s back line.
It is thought that the Romans subsequently based their game of Harpastum on Episkyros in the 2nd century BCE. Some claim that the objective in their game was to get the ball from the opposition and bring it back into your own half, a sort of inverted form of rugby. Harpastum was used in military training and it is estimated that the Romans played it for 700 to 800 years. Both the Greek and Roman games were quite violent in nature.
Finally, in Central America we find the Mesoamerican ball game which may date back to 1500BCE, possibly earlier. It was played with a rubber ball which might weigh anything from 500g up to as much as 3.5kg. There were two or three players on each side and you were allowed to use most parts of your anatomy, except for your hands. The “goal” was a ring which was situated up on a wall.
It is important to realise that there is no clear information on the precise rules of any of the games that are mentioned in this section, nor is there any evidence that they were related to Harpastum even though the Romans were in Britain for 400 years and no doubt played the game during their stay.
The first reference to ball games dates back to the 9th century CE, some 400 years after the departure of the Romans, when Historia Brittonum mentions “some boys playing at ball”. In the late 12th century William FitzStephen, a cleric and administrator in the service of Thomas Becket, describes London youth at play “After lunch, all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game. The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls. Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to watch their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: you can see their inner passions aroused as they watch the action and get caught up in the fun being had by the carefree adolescents”.
Historians tend to use the terms mob football, folk football, or occasionally the more bland sounding medieval football to describe the game in the Middle Ages. Mob football is most frequently referred to because its chaotic nature made it “newsworthy”. The term typically refers to games that were held on festive days, most notably Shrovetide. There could be hundreds of players on each side, e.g. when one town, village or parish took on their neighbours. Games are reported in various places across the country, including Workington, Derby and Gloucester. There was really no such thing as a pitch, the pitch was wherever the ball was. The game between the parishes of All Saints and St. Peter’s in Derby could include periods of play in the River Derwent. The objective varied: to get the ball to a nominated place at one end of the other team’s parish; or to kick the ball into the balcony of their church; or possibly just to be in possession of the ball at the end of the game. With so many players on each side it is doubtful that there was much kicking of the ball, a driving maul (to use rugby terminology) was more likely to be the tactic of choice, if indeed there were any tactics. It was an extremely violent game where the only rule appeared to be the sixth Commandment, “Thou shalt not kill”. In Derby in 1846 the Riot Act had to be read and a troop of cavalry used to disperse the players. Games might last all day before the players retired, no doubt to local hostelries.
In the west there were other variants of football, hurling in Cornwall and cnapan in Wales were both played with a small ball and may possibly be related to La Soule, a game which hailed from nearby Brittany and Normandy. There were two forms of hurling (not be confused with the Irish game of that name): hurling to country and hurling to goals. The former was similar to mob football where a game could range across open countryside, while the latter was confined to a defined area or pitch. The Irish game of caid also had a mob form and a more structured version on a field. As I have wandered out of England I should briefly mention calcio fiorentino, a violent game which was played by the aristocrats of Florence from the 15th century. It was a mixture of football, rugby and handball.
Unsurprisingly, given its violent nature, football was banned at various times. The Lord Mayor of the City of London banned it in 1314 on behalf of Edward II, being concerned about maintaining law and order. This decree appears to be the first time that the word football appears in print. Edward III and Henry V also banned it, but they were concerned that individuals should expend their energies in archery practice (for forthcoming battles) rather than waste their time playing at football, while Oliver Cromwell, with his puritan hat on, was against various forms of sport and gambling. And more recently, the 1835 Highways Act allowed fines of 40 shillings “for playing at football or any other game on any part of the said Highway, to the annoyance of any passenger”.Embed from Getty Images
It seems probable that ball games which were played outside of these festive occasions, when there were modest numbers of players, would have seen greater levels of skill, and a lesser degree of violence. Such informal games of street football, as they were sometimes called, which were played according to local rules (very local rules) may well have formed the original basis for the modern game, rather than the set-piece mob game. The illustration above shows a game in the Strand in London.
Forms of football began to appear in public schools around the middle of the 18th century: Eton in 1747 and Westminster in 1749, as well as Harrow, Shrewsbury, Charterhouse and Winchester around the same period. Initially, games were organised by the senior boys, often in the face of opposition from the teachers.
Recognition that public schools were providing an inadequate education for the future movers and shakers of the country, and instances of disorder in various institutions due to the fact that pupils were left to their own devices for long periods of time, led to reforms from around 1830. Thomas Arnold at Rugby School is generally identifed as the major reformer although a similar process was soon being followed by other headmasters, Charles Vaughan at Harrow, George Cotton at Marlborough and Edward Thring at Uppingham. As part of these reforms, sport was gradually recognised as playing an essential part in the overall character-building process.
Each school developed its own set of football rules. Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham veered towards a handling game while Eton, Shrewsbury, Westminster and Charterhouse favoured a kicking game. This obviously led to a somewhat insular approach, games typically being limited to inter-house games or matches against Old Boys. There were even Old Boys teams at Oxbridge, e.g. Cambridge Old Etonians and Trinity College Old Harrovians.
Students at Cambridge University, struggling to play meaningful games of football when they came from schools that each had different rules, made an initial attempt in 1848 to establish a common set of rules. The Cambridge Rules of 1848 were notable for: allowing a player to handle a ball to stop it but not to run with it in hand; allowing forward passes; throw-ins and goal kicks; pushing with the hands, holding or tripping were not allowed. An offside rule requiring more than three defenders between the attacker and the goal was subsequently added. The Cambridge Rules were adopted by a number of the early formed football clubs in the 1850s and 1860s.
Sheffield Football Club (FC) was formed in 1857 and is known as the oldest club still in existence. It established its own rules, known as the Sheffield Rules in 1858. They included: hacking and tripping were not allowed but pushing was allowed; the ball may be pushed or hit with the hand but not otherwise held; and a fair catch (a mark in rugby today), so long as the ball has not bounced, entitled a player to a free kick. Hallam FC (1858) and a number of other clubs that were established in the Sheffield area subsequently agreed to adopt these rules, which spread beyond Sheffield to other parts of the North in the 1860s and 1870s.
Needless to say, London attracted a significant number of Oxbridge graduates and ex-public schoolboys on completion of their education. There was obviously a desire among those who had enjoyed playing football at school and university to continue with this pursuit. Forest FC (1859) was initially based in Snaresbrook, changing its name to the Wanderers in 1864. Its membership was limited to Oxbridge students and former pupils of public schools. Other early clubs in the capital included: Barnes (1862) who grew out of the local rowing club; Crusaders (1863); the Civil Service Club (1863); Crystal Palace (1861) formed from the local cricket club – this is not the current FA Premiership club; Clapham Rovers (1869); and Upton Park (1866) in East London.
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Eton Field XI (1865)
The London clubs encountered just the same problems as the students at Cambridge University had, the lack of agreement on the rules of the game. A meeting was held on October 26th, 1863 at the Freemason’s Tavern in Great Queen Street, London (Covent Garden, fringing on Holborn). Eleven clubs and schools attended. They agreed to form the Football Association (FA), a somewhat presumptuous title at the time for what was effectively just a London organisation.
A series of six meetings were held to agree on the initial laws of the game. The Cambridge Rules had just been revised and they were used as a basis for discussion. There were two main areas of disagreement among the attendees: rules regarding handling / running with the ball and hacking. It was eventually agreed that a player could catch the ball but not run with it, while hacking (kicking a player below the knee) was not allowed. The decisions were not unanimous and some of the clubs who were unable to accept them promptly resigned, Blackheath being one of them. It subsequently became a founder member of the Rugby Football Union which was formed in 1871. It is interesting to note that hacking was outlawed by the RFU. Sheffield sent observers to the meeting(s) but they decided to stick with their own rules. The 1863 rules of Association Football, as the game became known, contained only 13 laws. The term Association Football was eventually shortened to soccer (using the Oxford -er) although it was sometimes spelt socker. In parts of the North, “togger” was a frequently used abbreviation (certainly when I was a lad), and obviously footie (or is that footy?) eventually passed into common parlance.
The first game to be played under the new rules was a 0-0 draw between Barnes and Richmond.
The gentleman amateur, typically an ex-public schoolboy, dominated the game in this period but the FA struggled to establish itself in the beginning, and there was a slow take-up of its laws of the game. It was the 1880s before significant progress was made.
The FA was far from being successful in the early years. In the 1860s the membership fluctuated between 28 and 9, and at one point there were as few as 3 clubs who were actually playing to FA rules.
A number of initiatives were undertaken in attempts to broaden the organisation’s appeal across the country. The establishment of the FA Challenge Cup in 1871 was arguably the best idea. Only 15 clubs competed for the trophy in its first year. Who were the winners of that first FA Cup competition in 1872? This sounds very much like a Trivial Pursuits question. The answer is the Wanderers who went on to win the cup 5 times in the first 7 years of the competition. The club can arguably can be seen as representing the high point of public school influence in football. It was forced to scratch from the competition in 1880 due to a lack of players, but it managed to limp on until 1883 when it went out of existence. Elite clubs with public school pedigrees dominated the competition until 1883 when Blackburn Olympic triumphed, one of 5 clubs in Blackburn at the time. Blackburn Olympic (see picture below) also went out of existence in 1889.Embed from Getty Images
A second initiative was to arrange an “international match” against Scotland in 1870. The term is in quotes because the Scottish FA was not founded until 1873 and, somewhat bizarrely, the English FA selected both sides. Therefore, it is not recognised as a true international by FIFA. There were actually a total of five such England v. Scotland games between 1870 and 1872. All the Scottish players were based in London where the games were played.
A third initiative was to encourage the creation of county and district FAs which would be affiliated to the FA and the playing of inter-county matches. Sheffield & Hallamshire FA was formed in 1867 and became affiliated in 1871, the first county FA to do so. As an aside, it continued to use its own Sheffield Rules at the beginning. County FAs were mostly aligned along historic county boundaries. A small number were founded later in the 1870s, but the majority were formed in the 1880s and 1890s. The number of clubs affiliated to the FA rose to 1,000 in 1888, 10,000 in 1905 and 12,000 by 1910.
Despite the FA’s endeavours, there continued to be problems during the 1870s with teams playing by different rules. The Sheffield Rules were still in existence. Sheffield and the FA played each other on a number of occasions, with games alternating between the two sets of rules. By 1877 Sheffield was content with the changes to the FA’s laws that are outlined above, and they agreed on a single set of laws which would be administered by the FA.
Elsewhere, two teams might agree to play a match by association rules one day and switch to rugby for the return match later in the season. A variation on this theme was to play one half of the game in each code. You will not be surprised to know that there was the odd occasion when the two teams were unable to agree, resulting in no game at all. Clapham Rovers became known as the “hybrid team”. They alternated, playing association one week and rugby the next week.
The first official international match between England and Scotland took place in Glasgow on November 30th, 1872. The entire Scottish side was made up of players from the Queens Park Football Club. The game ended in a 0-0 draw. Matches between the two nations subsequently became an annual event, usually being played in the spring. The English style of play at this time was highly individualistic, concentrating on dribbling. To be precise, it was the London and Home Counties style. Other team members simply backed up the dribbler, their role being to retrieve the ball when he lost possession. The Scots employed a passing game, called combination football by journalists of the time. Their natural skill, allied with a passing game, tended to give Scotland the edge. They inflicted heavy defeats on the English by scores of 7–2, 6–1 and 5–1 between the years 1878–1882. Scottish players, dubbed Scotch Professors, soon attracted northern clubs who paid them. Preston North End had 7 or 8 in their Invincibles team (1888-1889), while the entire Liverpool side in their first game in the Football League in 1892 was composed of Scottish players.
Clubs of the gentleman amateur genre were quite patchy outside London and the Home Counties. Where they were found they tended to be as elitist as possible. Numbers would be supplemented by men in middle class professions who had been to grammar schools. Membership fees were invariably set at a level that would discourage the great unwashed. Snobbery could also affect a club’s fixture list. It may prefer to play games within the club rather than against external opposition of a lower social strata, e.g. the first half of the alphabet plays the second half or Law plays Medicine.
Gentlemen clubs that could be found in cities across England included: Sheffield FC (1857), the oldest surviving football club; Tyne Association and Newcastle Rangers in the North East; Manchester Association and Manchester Wanderers; Liverpool AFC followed by Liverpool Ramblers on Merseyside; and Calthorpe, a short-lived club in Birmingham.
Apart from the public school-based gentleman amateur teams, football clubs which had their roots elsewhere began to appear from the 1870s. There were various sources:
- cricket clubs, keen for something to do during the winter months, formed football teams, e.g. Sheffield Wednesday and Preston North End
- churches were a frequent source, e.g. Bolton Wanderers (Christ Church FC), Everton (St. Domingo FC), Aston Villa (Villa Cross Wesleyan Chapel) and Southampton (St. Mary’s Church)
- the workplace, e.g. West Bromwich Albion (George Salter’s Spring Works), Manchester United (the Carriage and Wagon Department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath) and Arsenal (munitions workers in Woolwich, South East London)
- teachers, priests and other individuals who had dealings with young men also helped to spread the game. For example, John Ripsher, the warden of Tottenham YMCA, became the first President and Treasurer of Tottenham Hotspur
- and of course, public houses were very obvious places where clubs could be founded.
In an era when gentlemen players (supposedly) never committed a deliberate foul, the game was effectively run by the captains of the two teams. A referee (the timekeeper really) then appeared on the touchline in 1871 to whom the two captains could appeal if they could not agree. As the game became more competitive, two umpires, one appointed by each team, replaced the captains in 1874. Eventually, the referee took over complete control on the pitch in 1891 and the umpires were relegated to the sidelines, subsequently becoming linesmen. Neutral linesmen started to appear in important games in 1898-99.
The word “amateur” appeared in the late 18th century. It has French and Italian origins, meaning “lover of”. The amateur ethos in sport arose in public schools. Games were to be played purely for the love of it, and “fair play” was expected from participants who should not get over-excited in victory or downhearted in defeat. In addition, these amateurs tended to frown on training and even on watching games (when you should be playing).
Reading books and articles the impression is given that gentleman amateurs had always given strong voice to their views on sport. I am inclined to believe that there was no real reason for them to preach their message while the game was predominantly their preserve. The picture obviously changed in the 1880s with the threat of professionalism in football and subsequently in rugby.
There can be a tendency to relate amateur ethos with a form of the game that majors on footballing skills. That would be to superimpose our 21st century views onto a 19th century game. In fact, the gentleman amateurs from London and the Home Counties grew up with a physical game that was effectively part soccer and part rugby. Northern sides, some of which had a strong Scottish influence, played a slightly less physical, more skilful game. One local press report of a match when Preston hosted Corinthian FC, who we are just about to meet, said that the London team was one of the dirtiest that Preston had faced, an indication of the differences in approach at this early stage of the game’s development.
Corinthian FC was founded in 1882 by N.L. (Pa) Jackson, the Assistant Secretary of the FA at the time. His main objective was to produce a team that could match the Scots. It deliberately did not play at the weekends so that players could turn out for their primary clubs on Saturdays. It was initially suggested that it should be called the Wednesday Club, but Corinthian was eventually chosen, a name that was initially used by the Royal Corinthian Yachting Club which had been founded in 1872 to promote amateur yachting.
Corinthian FC became the epitome of the amateur ethos, the phrase “Corinthian Spirit” being mainly associated with the club. It had no ground, it shunned all competitions and played only friendly matches until late in its existence. It is claimed that in one game when the referee failed to appear, one of its players both played in and refereed the match, even awarding a free kick against himself. Along with other gentlemen amateur teams of the period, they disdained penalty kicks when they were introduced in 1892 – a gentleman would never deliberately foul an opponent! If a penalty was awarded against them, the goalkeeper would leave the goal unguarded while the opposition took the kick, and if they were awarded a penalty they would deliberately miss it.
It was a sort of amateur all stars team, slightly reminiscent of the Barbarians side in Rugby Union although it obviously played more games than the Baa-Baas. It played and beat many professional sides in its heyday, including an 11-3 trouncing of Manchester United in 1904, their biggest ever defeat. It included many international players. Indeed, for two games against Wales in the mid-1890s the entire England side was composed of Corinthians. C.B. Fry, the celebrated sporting polymath, made 74 appearances for the club between 1891 and 1903.
The club went on many overseas tours in the early part of the 20th century. It is claimed that Real Madrid were inspired to adopt Corinthian’s strip, while Sport Club Corinthians Paulista, one of the most successful Brazilian club sides, and Zejtun Corinthians in Malta both adopted its name.
Elite amateur football in the North East was centred on the Durham coalfields, south of Newcastle. In general, clubs were more pragmatic than their southern counterparts. Bishop Auckland, who came to be the most successful amateur side, was the nearest to the southern amateur ethos. The Church Institute, a theological college which was centred on the Bishop of Durham’s residence in the town, set up a team in 1882. Its students hailed mainly from Oxbridge. A dispute within the club resulted in Auckland Town being set up in 1886, whose name was changed to Bishop Auckland in 1893. Players were eventually a mixture of town and gown (to use the historic university term). The club considered a move to professionalism but ultimately rejected it. Other clubs in the area, e.g. Crook Town, came to the same decision. They simply took the view that they would be unable to afford professional players.
Looking at some of today’s top class professional teams in the North East: Middlesbrough (formed in 1876) was an amateur club which won the FA Amateur Cup twice in the 1890s before turning professional in 1899; Newcastle East End (1877) and Newcastle West End (1882) were both formed from cricket clubs, East End turning professional in 1889 and the two clubs officially merging in 1892 to form Newcastle United; originally founded as Sunderland & District Teachers AFC in 1879, Sunderland were found guilty of paying three players in 1888 and banned, after which the club promptly decided to turn professional.
Association Football grew quickly in this period, moving from a game that was dominated by the gentleman amateur into a mass participation sport which attracted large crowds.
The Industrial Revolution and the success of the Victorian economy helped to provide the foundation for an ever expanding range of sports and leisure activities in England. The laws of many pastimes and games, some of which had previously been played with a variety of unofficial rules for several centuries, were officially codified in the early and middle years of the 19th century. This was generally followed by the formation of local clubs and societies towards the end of the 19th century. Examples include cricket, boxing, tennis, golf and horticultural societies.
In the 1880s football began its move from a sport that was played by a relatively privileged few into a mass participation game which came to attract large crowds. Certain prerequisites needed to be in place to facilitate this transformation, as we will now briefly cover.
Time. A working man needed a block of time free to play or attend matches. The Saturday half-holiday started to appear around the 1850s, and by the 1870s the majority of unionised trades had the afternoon off. Dock work was one area that did not benefit from this change. It took until 1920 for dockers to achieve parity in this respect.
Wages. It was all very well having time off but a worker needed money to make use of this new leisure time. The late 19th century began to see real increases in wages, particularly in the 1890s.
Transport. The advent of the steam locomotive in the early 19th century and the development of train networks around the middle of the century were key elements in improving transport. The provision of local services was especially useful for football players and supporters, e.g. a number of teams in the capital played at grounds which were close to the North London Line which ran from Richmond (to the west of London) through the north western suburbs of the capital to North Woolwich. Horse-drawn omnibuses and trams were a crucial means of local transport. Omnibuses were in use from around 1830 and trams from 1860-1870. Electric trams appeared around the turn of the 20th century.
Availability of pitches. Although private grounds may have been used, public parks generally started to appear around the 1860s and 1870s, providing more space for pitches. Clapham Common, which as the name implies was once common land for the parishes of Battersea and Clapham, was converted into parkland in 1878. Battersea Fields, an area once used for market gardens and duelling, became Battersea Park in 1858. The Wanderers and other London sides used both places at various times. Other parks included Stanley Park in Liverpool (1870) and Heaton Park in Manchester (1902).
The lawn mower was invented by Edwin Budding in Gloucestershire in 1830. Before this time, grassed areas might be maintained by scything or by letting sheep graze. Lord’s Cricket Ground only gave up on sheep in 1864 when a mower was acquired and a groundsman appointed.
In 1884 after a drawn FA Cup tie, Upton Park FC complained that Preston North End had fielded professional players. Preston confessed, saying that many northern clubs paid players, and they were dismissed from the competition. Northern clubs subsequently threatened to resign from the FA and form a British Football Association where professionalism would be allowed. To avoid a schism the FA decided in 1885 to allow professionals. It imposed a number of conditions: a player must have resided within 6 miles of the ground for 2 years; he was only permitted to play for one club in a season; an amateur was only allowed legitimate travel expenses otherwise he would be regarded as a professional; and finally, professionals and ex-professionals were not allowed to sit on FA committees.
The first acknowledged professional to play for England in 1886 was made to wear a blue shirt while the rest of the side wore white. Cricket had more stringent means of separating professionals and amateurs. Gentlemen (amateurs) and Players (professionals) had separate dressing rooms and separate gates onto the field. The England cricket team was only captained by Gentlemen between 1886 and 1951. It was 1962 before everybody was simply called a cricketer.
It was quickly recognised by professional football teams that they needed to generate sufficient income to meet their expenditure. William McGregor, a Birmingham draper and Aston Villa committee member, called a meeting in March 1888 to discuss the formation of a league with the intention of guaranteeing matches between well-matched teams which would draw large crowds. The proposal was agreed at a second meeting in Manchester a month later, and the Football League was formed. The twelve founder members were: Aston Villa, Preston North End Wolverhampton Wanderers, Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers, West Bromwich Albion, Accrington Stanley, Everton, Burnley, Derby County, Notts County and Stoke. The first games were played on Sept 8th 1888. Preston North End (pictured below) were the first winners of the league, being unbeaten in their 22 games. They also won the FA Cup in the same season, earning themselves the title of “the Invincibles”. Aston Villa also achieved the league and cup double in the 1896-97 season.Embed from Getty Images
Here are some facts and figures from the early days of the Football League. The Retain and Transfer system was established by 1893 whereby a club decided whether a player was kept or transferred, and wage restrictions were in place by the end of the century. In 1900 the maximum wage was £4 per week and bonuses were outlawed. Admission prices in the 1890s were a minimum of 6d for men (entrance to the music hall at the time was 3d or 4d) and 3d for women and boys. The typical supporter was in the age range 18-40.
The popularity of the game saw increased press coverage of matches. The Saturday Evening sports edition of a newspaper first appeared in the 1880s, and by the following decade most towns and cities of reasonable size had their own Football Pink or Green as they were often called (related to the colour of the paper that was used).
The concept of league football was immediately found to be attractive, and other leagues were quickly founded in areas away from London.
The Football Alliance, the Northern League and the Midland League all started in the following year, the 1889-90 season. The Football Alliance initially consisted of twelve professional clubs, covering the same area as the Football League, viz. the North West and the West Midlands, and it was therefore in competition with it. It was only in existence for three seasons, eventually merging with the Football League in 1892 when its teams formed the second division. The Northern League covered Northumberland, Durham, North Yorkshire and Cumberland. It contained a mixture of both amateur and professional sides until 1906 when it became totally amateur. The Western League was founded in 1892.
In London, Woolwich Arsenal (now simply Arsenal) became a professional club in 1891, and it was behind a move to create a southern professional league. This attempt failed due to opposition from the London FA, and therefore Arsenal applied to the Football League, becoming the first southern side to join in 1893. A second attempt by Millwall Athletic (now Millwall) was successful, and the Southern League was formed in 1894 with two divisions. Some Southern League sides attracted large crowds. Indeed, Tottenham Hotspur and Chelsea had larger crowds than many Football League clubs. Southern League sides also had some success in the FA Cup, Tottenham Hotspur winning it in 1901, while Southampton reached the final in both 1900 and 1902. Teams gradually started to join the Football League: Chelsea (1905), Fulham (1907), Tottenham Hotspur (1908) and West Ham United (1919). Finally, all teams in the first division of the Southern League moved en masse into the new Football League third division in 1920.
Professional clubs had been dominating the FA Cup since 1883, and in 1892 Sheffield FC suggested the introduction of a national competition solely for amateurs. The FA rejected the idea but promptly changed its mind in the following year. The FA Amateur Cup was first won by Old Carthusians (the former pupils of Charterhouse School) in the 1893-1894 season. The competition existed until amateurs were abolished in 1974. It was dominated principally by teams from the Isthmian League and the Northern League. Bishop Auckland was the most successful side, winning the cup on 10 occasions and finishing runners-up on a further 8. Crook Town was another successful club from the North East, winning the trophy on 5 occasions.
The game in England spread to other countries from the 1860s onward. Typically, Britons who were working abroad took football with them and foreign students in England returned home with a knowledge of the game. It is important to realise that the rules of the time travelled with the individuals concerned, and as the rules were subject to considerable change from 1863 up to the end of the century, it meant that the game was probably being played to different rules in different countries. An extreme example is the first game that was played by British workers in Argentina in 1867 which was a mixture of association football and rugby football.
As the game spread informally in each country, so the requirement to oversee it grew. This led to the formation of national FAs, the first tranche occurring between 1889 and 1904.
The inevitable next step was to form a world-wide governing body. Federatione Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) was formed in Paris in 1904, the founder members being France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. Germany joined immediately. One of the initial rules of the organisation was that matches were to be played according to “The Laws of the Game of the Football Association ltd”.
No sign of England? The English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish FAs had started their own Home Championship in 1883, having agreed the rules to be adopted the year before. They also agreed to form a board to determine any future changes to the laws of the game and The International Football Association Board (IFAB) was set up in 1886.
Although everybody wanted the Brits to be founder members of FIFA they unanimously rejected these overtures. However, they changed their minds in the following year, largely due to the diplomatic work of Baron Edouard de Laveleye, and joined. Daniel Burley Woodfall, an English Football administrator, was appointed president of FIFA in 1906, a position he held until his death in 1918.
FIFA had no real experience of organising tournaments, and it therefore asked the FA to organise the football competitions at the 1908 and 1912 Olympics, both of which were won by Great Britain.
FIFA was admitted to IFAB in 1913. Nowadays, FIFA has 50% of the voting rights on IFAB (four votes) while each of the British FAs has one each.
There was little football during World War I, and coupled with the death of Woodfall in 1918, there was a danger that FIFA might fold. At a meeting to kick-start the organisation again in 1919, England objected to the continued membership of Germany and the other Central Powers, and it formally withdrew from FIFA in 1920. Although it rejoined a couple of years later, it fell out with FIFA again in 1928 when it was unhappy that FIFA was going to sanction broken-time payments for amateur players. Broken-time payments were sums of money for any lost wages that a player may suffer. On this occasion England did not re-join until 1946, thus missing the first three FIFA World Cup tournaments in 1930, 1934 and 1938.
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1905 FA Cup Final – Aston Villa vs Newcastle Utd at Crystal Palace
The 1870 Elementary Education Act set the framework for the schooling of children between the ages of 5 and 12. It was followed by a series of further education acts between 1871 and 1893. Students who went to training colleges became teachers in the new elementary schools. St. John’s in Battersea, St. Mark’s in Chelsea and St. Peter’s in Birmingham were training colleges where students could find football. These teachers were subsequently instrumental in helping to spread football locally. They played the game themselves, forming teams such as Middlesborough Pupil Teachers FC and Sunderland and District Teachers’ Association FC, the latter eventually becoming Sunderland FC. Apart from playing, they gradually introduced football into schools, W.J. Wilson, the headmaster at Oldridge Road School in Balham, being arguably the most noteworthy.
He set up South London Schools Football Association (SFA), the first district to organise school football, in 1885. Poplar and Tower Hamlets SFAs followed soon after, and the first inter-district game took place between South London and Tower Hamlets in 1888. Other districts followed in London, and Wilson was responsible for setting up the London SFA in 1892. District SFAs were quickly set up in other parts of the country during the early 1890s, including Manchester (1890), Liverpool (1891), Nottingham (1891), Sunderland (1893) and Newcastle (1894).
The English Schools FA was formed in 1904, and it introduced the English Schools Trophy competition in the following year, London beating Sheffield in the first final. Finally, the first schoolboy international took place in Walsall in 1907 when England played against Wales.
Although there is evidence of some games being played in the 1880s, women’s football in England arguably started with the British Ladies Football Club in 1895. The first official match was held at Crouch End in London between teams from the North and the South, the North winning 7-1. The club lasted little more than a year, lack of funds being the ultimate cause of its demise.
The women’s game came into prominence during World War I and the immediate post-war period, men being away at war providing an opportunity for working women to play. The most famous side was Dick, Kerr Ladies (from a Preston munitions company) who first played in 1917. See the picture below. There were at least 150 teams by the end of 1921, playing friendly matches for charitable purposes. 53,000 saw Dick, Kerr Ladies play St. Helens at Goodison Park on Boxing Day, 1921.
Unfortunately, the FA was against the women’s game, announcing in December 1921 that they could no longer use the grounds of affiliated clubs. It also claimed that gate takings from charity games were being siphoned off by organisers. Frederick Wall, Secretary of the FA, stated that, based on his experience, the game was not suitable for women. Other critics weighed in, with some female doctors warning about the dangers of excessive exercise to women. Ultimately, the women’s game faded, but it did not disappear altogether. It was to appear, revitalised, in the late 1960s.Embed from Getty Images
There is little known about the precise beginnings of the grassroots game, principally because of the lack of press coverage. It seems certain that some matches were being played in the 1870s, albeit friendly matches quite possibly between unaffiliated clubs.
The attraction of leagues spread to the grassroots game, gradually resulting in a myriad of local amateur leagues (affiliated to the local county or district FAs) across the country from the 1890s onwards. In Liverpool the first local league was the I Zingari League which was founded in 1895. I Zingari (from the dialectalised Italian meaning “the Gypsies”) was the name used by a cricket club that was formed by a group of Old Harrovians in 1845. It is a nomadic amateur side (having no ground) which is still in existence. It was followed by an Australian cricket club which adopted the same name in 1888, I Zingari Australia. The I Zingari League’s name was obviously chosen to invoke the same spirit of amateur competition. Old Xaverians FC, set up in 1892 by the recently formed cricket side, is the sole founder member of the league that is still in existence. The I Zingari Combination was set up in 1904, partly providing a base for I Zingari reserve teams. It was followed by a third tier, the I Zingari Alliance, in 1912. Meanwhile, the Liverpool County Combination was founded in 1908, competing with the I Zingari League for the title of premier grassroots football in the area.
Local amateur leagues across the country soon catered for old boy, church and business teams. The Liverpool Shipping League was founded in 1920, the same year that dock workers eventually got Saturday afternoons off (a coincidence or not?). Other leagues which appeared in the city included: the Liverpool Old Boys League (1923), the Liverpool Business Houses League (year?) and the Liverpool CYMS League (year?).
Works teams benefited greatly from company assistance. There are numerous examples of excellent grounds and facilities that have been provided by the company. Boots Athletic FC was formed in 1895. By 1923 it had 5 teams who were playing at the Lady Bay sports ground which was famed for its excellent playing surface (it employed the same groundsman who looked after Trent Bridge). Bourneville FC (Cadbury) provided 19 pitches, 16 cricket squares, 41 tennis courts, 4 bowling greens and 2 croquet lawns.
In Northumberland and Durham a typical pit in the 1920s might employ two to three thousand people, enough to allow more than one team. Sometimes the club might be associated solely with the colliery and sometimes with the town. In London, the Spartan League was as high as works teams could get up the amateur league ladder.
The gentleman amateur in the capital had mainly limited himself to playing friendlies, scorning the idea of competitions, possibly with the exception of the FA Cup and the FA Amateur Cup. However, the lure of league football eventually proved too strong for some of them to resist, and the Isthmian League was founded in 1905. It was strongly dedicated to amateurism, and the champions did not even receive a trophy or medals. It consisted of a single division up to 1973. It was followed by the Spartan League in 1907 and the Athenian League in 1912.
In 1906 the FA made a decision that all clubs, amateur and professional, must be affiliated to the county FAs. Middlesex FA and Surrey FA, where the amateur ethos still dominated, objected to this ruling, seeing this as the thin end of the wedge. Talks with the FA failed and the two associations formed the breakaway Amateur Football Association (AFA) in 1907. The FA took the line that games with non-affiliated clubs were forbidden and that players from non-affiliated clubs were not eligible to represent the country. In addition, the AFA was not recognised by the Scottish, Welsh or Irish FAs. These factors obviously affected the fixture lists of AFA-affiliated clubs. The split lasted from 1907 to 1914 when a reconciliation was achieved. As part of the deal, the AFA (now called the Amateur Football Alliance) continued to exist but only as a body affiliated to the FA, and it was limited in its ability to recruit new members.
There were 2,000 at the first FA Cup Final in 1872; 8,000 at Sheffield’s Cromwell Cup Final in 1877 and 9,000 at the first Lancashire Cup Final in 1880. Attendances at the FA Cup Final rose from 17,000 in 1888 to 120,000 at Crystal Palace in 1913.
From around the early 1880s a small number of successful club sides in Lancashire and the Midlands were becoming “gate-taking” clubs. The 12-strong Football League had crowds totalling 600,000 in its inaugural season (1888-1889). Later on, the 20-strong Football League drew 5 million in 1905-1906 and 8.78 million in 1913-1914.
While we, perched in the early 21st century, might consider football to have been quite a rough game a hundred years ago, it was significantly less physical than it had been back in the 1860s when it was arguably something of a soccer/rugby hybrid.
In general, the inter-war years can be seen as a period of consolidation at the top end of the game after the hectic changes of the previous fifty years. The FA and the Football League were both conservative organisations between the wars. The FA was against the football pools, club lotteries, dog racing on football grounds, women’s football, Sunday football and floodlit matches .. to name but a few. It also showed little desire to be at the heart of developments in world soccer. The Football League began the period by expanding, but thereafter there was little change.
Meanwhile, elite amateur football saw a more pragmatic form of amateurism replace the gentleman amateur variant, while the grassroots game continued to grow at a rapid pace. The number of FA-affiliated clubs grew from 10,000 in 1910 to 37,000 by 1937.
The Football League embarked on a period of expansion immediately after World War I. The two divisions were each increased to 22 teams in 1919; a third division was added in 1920 when all the clubs in the first division of the Southern League joined; and it became the third division south in 1921 when the third division north was introduced. Average attendances at first division matches rose from 23,000 in 1913-14 to 30,000 in 1938-39.
On the financial front, the minimum admission price had been raised to 9d in 1917, in part to cover the Entertainments Tax which had been introduced by the UK Government in 1916, and it subsequently rose to 1 shilling after the war. The maximum wage for professional players was £9 per week in 1921 but it was lowered to £8 in the following year although few players actually earned this sum.
The position of secretary manager at a Football League club had become established by 1900. It was principally an administrative role. The manager, as we might recognise him today, began to appear in the inter-war period. Herbert Chapman, the manager at Huddersfield Town and subsequently Arsenal, is probably most associated with this move to a more technical management role. However, the change was gradual. The Newcastle United board was still picking the team well into the 1950s.
On the field, Huddersfield Town was the team of the 1920s under the management of Herbert Chapman, winning the first division league title in three consecutive seasons (starting in 1923-24), finishing runners-up twice and winning the FA Cup once.
Chapman moved to Arsenal in 1925 and laid the foundations for the club’s subsequent successes in the 1930s when it won five league titles and two FA Cups. Their cup win in 1930 was in fact the first success by a southern club since Tottenham Hotspur FC won the trophy back in 1901. Chapman died in 1934, part way through the club’s triumphant decade.
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Charlton vs Liverpool (1938)
Media coverage increased significantly between the wars. The popular press grew, and it used football coverage as part of its circulation wars. This resulted in those players who were at the top of the game becoming household names. The BBC broadcast its first radio commentary in January 1927, covering the match between Arsenal and Sheffield United. Coverage increased until the Football League banned all broadcasts of its fixtures in June 1931, citing reduced attendances at matches as the reason. The FA was more sympathetic, allowing various cup matches, including the final and international matches, to be broadcast during the 1930s.
The Amateur Football Alliance (AFA) suffered from World War I. Only around one third of its clubs reappeared after the conflict. In addition, public schools were moving away from football to rugby. In part, some schools made the change because they were unhappy that fixtures had not been suspended when war was declared, as other sports such as cricket and rugby had done. The 1914-15 season was completed and then fixtures were suspended, resuming in the 1919-20 season.
Corinthian FC’s fixture list was hard hit by the reduced number of clubs. It started to play schools, claiming that it was attempting to encourage them, but it invariably thrashed them which probably had the opposite effect. The club took the decision in 1922 to enter the FA Cup for the first time. It beat 1st division Blackburn Rovers in round 1 in 1923-24 but lost 5-0 to West Bromwich Albion in the next round. It won only two further ties over the next decade, although the club continued to attract considerable media and public attention. In the mid-1930s the FA said that it would have to play through the qualifying rounds of the competition like any other amateur side. The club struggled on until 1939 when it formally amalgamated with Casuals FC, becoming Corinthian-Casuals.
Elsewhere, the pragmatic amateur (the term used by Terry Morris) was replacing the gentleman amateur. Young players were recruited from local schools; grounds were developed that had an air of permanency; committees of members were established who were willing to devote time and energy to running the club; connections were established with the local community; and there were signs of succession from one generation of supporters to the next.
In London and the Home Counties there was a mixture of regeneration within existing clubs and the formation of new clubs. Dulwich Hamlet FC was a prime example of the former. It had an outstanding club official in Lorraine Wilson who founded the club in 1890s. He had acted as the treasurer ever since, and had done much to keep the club afloat during World War I. Clapton FC in Forest Gate East London was another example. New clubs arose from junior leagues, especially in West and North London, principally on the back of new industrial development in these areas. Examples include Wealdstone FC (Harrow), Finchley FC and Hayes FC.
The Northern League had mixed fortunes during the inter-war years. Some clubs folded due to financial difficulties while others prospered, particularly those who had strong connections with local collieries and communities, e.g. Crook Town and Bishop Auckland.
In general, many elite amateur clubs tended to endure a hand to mouth existence, the occasional season with a good run in the Amateur Cup or a good draw in the FA Cup being offset by years when the books barely balanced.
Shamateurism, a term coined by journalists, came into public focus with the Crook Town scandal in 1927-28. There were two areas of concern: jobs being found for players in local firms and the payment of expenses. Travel and meal expenses were allowed but the actual costs had to be claimed. However, flat payments were often made. In the Crook Town scandal, there were claims of excessive flat payments, and it was also claimed that one player was paid a wage. Crook Town said that lots of other clubs did the same. The result of the FA investigations into Crook Town and other clubs was that 341 players were suspended on grounds of their “professionalism”, while many club officials were also suspended on grounds of “malpractice”. There were a number of other investigations in the inter-war years but not on the same scale.
The Football League was suspended as soon as war was declared on September 3rd, 1939. However, a regional competition was soon in place, followed by a Football League Cup. War Office regulations regarding matches included: the attendance should be no greater than 8,000; entry was to be by ticket only; and teams were to travel no more than 50 miles to play. Unsurprisingly, there were sometimes travel problems; games were halted when air raid sirens sounded; and occasionally key players did not appear, leading to calls for volunteers to take their place. However, wartime games did help to convey a sense that normal life was carrying on despite the conflict.
England’s relative isolation from world football in the 1930s saw it lagging behind in the 1950s at both club and international level, a situation which was gradually remedied from the 1960s onwards. The major trend in the professional game from the 1960s onwards was the growing domination of the big city clubs.
Meanwhile, the elite amateur game went from a peak of success and popularity in the 1950s to extinction in the 1970s; women’s football grew in popularity; but the adult men’s grassroots game experienced a sharp decline around the end of the 20th century.
Football was extremely popular immediately after World War II. Football League attendances reached an all-time high of 41 million in the 1948-49 season, while the FA Amateur Cup Final attracted 95,000 in the same season when it was staged at Wembley for the first time. However, there was a general downward trend thereafter, Football League attendances dropping to 28m by 1961-62.
There were minor changes to the Football League in the 1950s. Four clubs were added at the beginning of the 1950-51 season, and the third division north / south structure was replaced by the third and fourth divisions in 1958.
The minimum admission price was 1s 6d in 1951, rising to 2s 6d in 1960. Radio commentaries of matches had started again during the war and continued after it. From the 1951-52 season the BBC was not allowed to give advance notice of which match was being covered in an attempt to protect attendances. Meanwhile, TV coverage, which was in its infancy, was limited to the Cup Final. This affected league attendances, as matches were played on the same day. The Cup Final was moved to the last day of season when few games were played, and eventually, from 1954 onwards, it was played in the week after the final league Saturday.
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Chelsea vs Newcastle Utd (1955)
The post war period began to see greater management autonomy in the professional game. Matt Busby, who is often considered to be the first tracksuit manager, took over at Manchester United in 1945. Walter Winterbottom, appointed as England’s first ever team manager in 1946, was another important figure. He sought to increase the network of the FA coaching scheme. Teachers were the principal attendees on such courses, but they were gradually joined by a smattering of professional players. Some enthused about this move while others complained about what they saw as an intellectual approach to the game. However, defeats at club level by Moscow Dynamo and at international level by Hungary helped to draw the sting from the criticism, and coaching had been adopted by most professional clubs by the end of the 1950s. Tactics varied from Tottenham Hotspur’s push and run side of 1951, the deep lying centre forward (known as the Revie Plan in 1954-55) and the first dabblings with 4-2-4. As part of its coaching drive, the FA showed the BBC recording of the Real Madrid versus Eintracht Frankfurt European Cup Final of 1960 in schools across the country. This was one of the classic European finals, showing Di Stefano and Puskas in their pomp.
At the end of the Second World War the FA had decided to organise a Youth Championship for county FAs as a way to stimulate the game among youngsters who were not yet old enough to play senior football. In 1951 it was realised that a competition for clubs would probably have a wider appeal, and the FA Youth Challenge Cup was started in the 1952–53 season. Manchester United won the trophy in the first five years of its existence.
Amateurs playing for professional clubs had been an extremely common occurrence before World War I, and it was still relatively common during the inter-war years, after which it petered out. The last amateur to be selected to play for England was in 1947. Seamus O’Connell managed to win an FA Amateur Cup winners medal with Bishop Auckland and a League Championship winners medal with Chelsea in the same season (1954-55).
Dock workers were unable to play football in the early days of the grassroots game, having to work on Saturday afternoons until 1920. It was almost certainly this situation which influenced the formation of the South West Ham Sunday League in 1901. However, the powers that be disapproved of playing on the Sabbath and the Essex FA banned it in 1907. The FA followed suit in 1908, banning any player found to have played on a Sunday. Despite the ban, other leagues gradually appeared, including the Dudley & Cradley Heath League (1910), Edmonton & District Sunday League (1925) and the East London Sunday League (1930). The National Sunday Football Association was formed in 1920.
Tooting & Mitcham Utd was expelled from the FA Amateur Cup in 1925 for fielding players who were playing on Sundays, and Sutton United suffered a similar fate in 1929. Anybody who played on Saturdays had to play under an assumed name on Sunday – there were a lot of John Smiths around! As an aside, referees probably had a harder time than the players in trying to hide their identities. Another occasional problem for Sunday football was that some games were prone to be disrupted by the Lord’s Day Observance Society.
Games were (and are) played in parks and other public spaces with Hackney Marshes becoming the most celebrated place. It housed 120 pitches after World War II when there was a rapid growth in Sunday League football. New leagues included the Hackney & Leyton Sunday League (1947), Manchester Amateur Sunday League (1947), Liverpool & District Sunday League (1951) and the Norwich & District Sunday League (1958).
The National Sunday Football Association eventually claimed to represent 73 leagues, 2,500 clubs and 500,000 players. The FA, possibly fearful of the rival organisation, was forced to accept the inevitable, and it finally recognised Sunday League Football in 1960. It subsequently started the National FA Sunday Cup competition in 1964 which in its second season attracted a staggering 1,600 entries.
The game was extremely popular in the immediate post-war period, leading to a growth in the number of players and clubs, coupled with high attendances at amateur club games in the South East. The closed shop system which was operated by the Isthmian and Athenian Leagues led to the formation of more leagues, the Corinthian League in 1945 and the Delphian League in 1951.
Pegasus was a club which was formed in 1948 with players coming from Oxford and Cambridge Universities. It was a deliberate attempt to imitate the Corinthian tradition. It did not join a league, but it managed to win the FA Amateur Cup in 1951 at only its third attempt, and again in 1953. The presence of older students at the universities in the immediate post war period obviously helped the club to recruit a number of experienced players. However, this model was not sustainable. Ultimately, Pegasus was competing with Corinthian Casuals for players, a battle which they started to lose. Pegasus’ fixture list became shorter and shorter in the late 1950s, and it went out of existence in 1963.
Attendances declined in the 1960s, and so the fortunes of amateur clubs suffered. As an example, Bishop Auckland had an income of £11,500 in 1956-57 but only £1,260 in 1967-68. In 1958 it had reserves of £6,300 but an overdraft of £1,449 10 years later. The installation of floodlights allowed teams to arrange mid-week games – friendlies typically. This helped financially for a short time but clubs really needed more competitive league fixtures. The Corinthian and Delphian Leagues were short-lived, both folding in 1963 with their teams transferring to the Athenian League. Financial problems led to a gradual drift towards professionalism and the Southern League. Teams who adopted this approach included Wimbledon (1964), Barnet (1965) and Wealdstone (1971).
“Sport and the Community” was the report of the Wolfenden Committee in 1960. It considered the widespread practice of irregular payments to amateur players, and it included the recommendation that the time had come to “abolish the formal distinction between amateur and professional, and to allow any participant, if he needs or wishes it, to be paid as a player, without stigma, reproach or differentiation”. The recommendation was ignored. Changes were afoot in other sports. In cricket the MCC abolished Gentlemen and Players in 1962. Henceforth, all would be known as cricketers. Athletics was slower. It remained amateur, but it did start to embrace sponsorship in the 1960s.
The FA was dragging its heels, even imposing a 50 mile limit between a player’s place of residence and his football club in 1963. However, the decision to abolish the distinction between amateur and professional was finally taken in November 1972, and it was implemented at the start of 1974-75 season.
Apart from what happened on the pitch, there are several interconnected strands which go to make up the professional game from the 1960s onwards. They are: players’ wages and contracts; reduced attendances; income derived from TV highlights and live broadcasts; income from sponsorship; and various structural changes.
Attempts to restructure the Football League met with limited success in the period from the late 1950s through to the early 1980s. There were various piecemeal changes, starting with the introduction of the League Cup in 1960-61, although it was arguably 1967 when the first final was held at Wembley between Queens Park Rangers and West Bromwich Albion before it was generally accepted by the clubs. Other changes included: the introduction of 3 up and 3 down in 1973; 3 points for a win in 1981-82; matches could be played on a Sunday – league games from 1981 and cup games from 1983; and automatic promotion / relegation between the 4th division and the Football Conference (currently known as the Vanarama National League) in 1987.
The importance of television coverage in the economics of the game would become paramount from the 1990s. However, the first notable step on the journey to saturation coverage came when the BBC’s Match of the Day programme appeared in 1964. The first programme contained highlights from Liverpool versus Arsenal on the opening day of the 1964-65 season. ITV’s Big Match highlights programme commenced in the following year. This TV coverage was accompanied by ever greater coverage of the game in the popular press.
Burnley FC’s golden period spanned the late 1950s and early 1960s. This included winning the first division championship in 1959-60 and finishing runners-up to Tottenham Hotspur in the 1962 FA Cup Final. However, Burnley was one of the smaller clubs that was ultimately affected by the removal of the maximum wage in 1961. Lancashire town clubs were particularly hit. Although they managed to survive for a time by living off their past records, a decline in playing fortunes and the ease of travel to neighbouring conurbations such as Liverpool and Manchester took them on a downward spiral. Burnley and Preston North End, both founder members of the Football League, were close to dropping out of the league in the 1980s. The only club from a town or city with a population of 200,000 or less to win the first division (or premier league) title since Burnley’s success in 1960 has been Blackburn Rovers in 1994-95, and their success was in no small measure helped by the money that chairman Jack Walker ploughed into the club.
Changes in players’ wages and contracts were key elements in the move towards the eventual domination of the richer clubs. There were four main stages in this particular saga: the abolition of the maximum wage (1961); some improvements to the retain and transfer system (1964); freedom of contract (1978); and the Bosman ruling (1995).
Not without a struggle, the maximum wage was increased to £12 in 1947 and had reached £20 by 1958. Some players managed to receive more than the maximum, as directors found ways to circumvent the rules whenever they deemed it was in their interest to do so. Illegal signing-on fees, bonuses and the use of club houses and cars were among the tactics that were employed. However, the retain and transfer system from 1893 remained firmly in place.
The Professional Footballers’ Association (PFA) formulated the following demands in 1960: abolition of the maximum wage; the right of players to a percentage of their transfer fee; a new retaining system and new contracts. In 1961 the players got most of what they wanted, including the abolition of the maximum wage, but there was no movement on retain and transfer. On this subject, George Eastham had recently walked out of football after Newcastle Utd refused to give him a transfer. Newcastle eventually relented after bad publicity, and he was transferred to Arsenal. The PFA persuaded Eastham to allow his claim to go forward as a test case even though he was now an Arsenal player. In the High Court in 1963 Mr. Justice Wilberforce declared that the retain and transfer system was an unjustifiable restraint of trade. The system was changed to the players’ benefit but freedom of contract did not arrive until 1978. This allowed players to refuse a new contract. However any new club would have to compensate the player’s current club. An independent tribunal would decide on the transfer fee when the two clubs could not agree. Finally, the Bosman ruling in 1995 said that payment of transfer fees for players who were free agents (that is out of contract) conflicted with an EU citizen’s right to free movement within employment.
Sponsorship appeared in the 1970s in an attempt to help with the general financial problems in the game, which were mainly attributable to higher wages and transfer fees, coupled with lower attendances. QPR was the first club to ask for permission to have a sponsor’s logo on their shirts in 1977. The request was denied, but it was rescinded 6 months later so long as the logo did not appear on shirts in televised games, a restriction that was eventually lifted in 1983. In 1981 Arsenal signed a 3 year deal with JVC for £0.5m. By the early 1980s most clubs had a shirt sponsor. The next step was that leagues became sponsored. The Football League was sponsored by Canon in 1983 while Rothmans sponsored the Isthmian and Hellenic leagues.
Attendances were at an all-time low of 16.5m in the 1985-86 season. Hooliganism was blamed for the downturn. It was not a new phenomenon. There had been periodic instances of trouble, going back as far as the 1880s, while QPR (1930), Millwall (1934) and Carlisle (1935) had their grounds closed for crowd disturbance. What was new was the concerted nature of hooliganism from the 1970s. Simply the fear of violence could be enough to put people off attending matches, as well as the actual acts. Some town centres were closed on Saturday afternoons in anticipation of trouble. There were running battles, pitch invasions and verbal abuse in and around grounds. 1985 was described as annus horribilis by one author. It saw a full scale battle between Luton and Millwall supporters, a fan stabbed to death in Birmingham, the Heysel disaster, and sandwiched in between them was the fire at Bradford when 56 people died.
From 1985 the leading clubs were pushing for a larger percentage of gate and TV money and a greater say on the Football League management committee. An agreed settlement was short-lived, and the threat of a breakaway loomed when ITV offered to sponsor a super-league as part of a strategy to see off the nascent satellite TV industry. A split was averted by giving first division clubs an even greater percentage of the TV money (75%). Eventually and almost inevitably, a split did occur when the FA proposed a Premier League. First division clubs gave notice that they would leave the Football League en bloc in the summer of 1991, and the Premier League commenced in August 1991, starting with 22 clubs although the number was cut to 20 in 1995. In May 1992 BSkyB outbid ITV for the live coverage of Premier League matches for 5 years.
Subsequent deals for broadcasting matches became ever more lucrative. The contracts with Sky Sports, BT Sport and BBC (for highlights) which cover 2016-2019 are worth £5.14bn to the Premier League. One of the effects of this largesse is that rich clubs are tempting out of contract foreign stars and their agents. Transfer fees are no longer going to the smaller English clubs.
Other financial aspects which were noteworthy in the 1980s and beyond include: ground building and merchandising. A number of clubs have either sold spare land around their grounds to developers or sold the ground, often centrally located, and built new grounds outside the town. Merchandising has been another source of income. In particular, replica strips have proved to be big business both for the clubs and the companies whose logos they have sported.
By the middle of the 1960s, it is fair to say that the first generation of tracksuit managers were in place and the importance of tactics was fully recognised. English clubs finally began to experience some success in Europe with Tottenham Hotspur winning the European Cup-Winners Cup in 1963, following on from its domestic run of success (League and Cup double in 1960-61 and the FA Cup again in 1962). Manchester United became the first English side to triumph in the European Cup in 1968.
Embed from Getty Images
Matt Busby with the European Cup (1968)
Liverpool were by far the most successful club in the 1970s and 1980s, winning 11 league titles, four European Cups and three FA Cups. It learned the possession game from continental sides. Ball playing centre-backs were the key to its continued success.
Brian Clough, the only manager since Herbert Chapman to win the first division league title with two clubs (Derby County and Nottingham Forest), guided Forest to two European Cups in 1979 and 1980. Coupled with Aston Villa’s success in 1982, there were a total of seven victories in the European Cup for English clubs in eight years (1977-1984), a truly golden period.
Black players were virtually non-existent in the early days of football. Andrew Watson, born in British Guyana, was probably the first. He played for the Queens Park club in Scotland before moving to England where he played for Swifts and Corinthian in the 1880s. There was a slight increase in 1950s and 1960s, but it was the 1970s before they started to appear in any significant numbers, including Laurie Cunningham, Cyrille Regis, Brendon Batson and John Fashanu. Viv Anderson eventually became the first black player to be capped for England in 1978.
The arrival of overseas players had something of a false start. The likes of Ardiles and Villa arrived at Tottenham Hotspur in the late 1970s, but the Professional Footballers Association (PFA) pressured the government to limit work permits to established players. In addition, UEFA imposed quotas on the use of non national players in its club competitions, limiting the number to three. For English clubs this quota system applied to Scottish, Welsh and Irish players as well. One of results of the Bosman ruling was that UEFA was no longer able to impose these quotas, leading to an influx of foreign players.
The establishment of the Premier League saw the beginning of virtually complete dominance by the bigger clubs. Manchester United has dominated the Premier League, winning the title 13 times in the period from 1992-93 to 2016-17, the UEFA Champions League twice and the FA Cup on 5 occasions. Chelsea and Arsenal are the other successful clubs over this twenty five season period. Chelsea has 5 league titles, one UEFA Champions League and six FA Cups, while Arsenal has won three league titles and eight FA Cup triumphs.
The success of the English men’s team in the 1966 World Cup was arguably one of the main drivers in revitalising the women’s game. There was sufficient interest to warrant the setting up of the English Women’s FA (WFA) in 1969. In response to pressure from UEFA, the FA lifted its ban on women playing on the grounds of FA-affiliated clubs in 1971, and in the following year a joint consultative committee of the FA and the WFA was formed to oversee some aspects of the women’s game. The game grew over the course of the decade and there were 278 affiliated clubs by 1979. The WFA eventually became affiliated to the FA in 1983 on the same basis as the county FAs.
A number of significant changes occurred in the early 1990s: a 24 club National League was set up in 1991; the WFA folded in 1993 and control of the game passed to the FA who immediately set up the first national cup competition; and Julie Hemsley became the first female member of the FA council in the mid 1990s.
Women’s football was gaining in popularity in other countries about the same time as it was in England, and inevitably international tournaments started to appear. The UEFA Women’s Championship was first held in 1984. England’s record up to 2017 was: runners-up on two occasions; semi-finalists on two occasions; the group stage on three occasions; and failure to qualify for the final stages of the competition on four occasions. After a trial tournament in 1988 the FIFA Women’s World Cup was first held in 1991. In the seven tournaments up to 2015 England achieved one third place and three quarter final appearances, while failing to qualify for the final stages of the competition on the other three occasions.
Back in the club game, a restructuring of the league took place in 2011 with the formation of the Women’s Super League which initially consisted of a single division, expanding to two divisions, each with ten clubs, in 2014. Underneath them in the FA’s Pyramid for the women’s game came the Women’s FA Premier League in 2014-15, which consisted of a Northern and a Southern division, while beneath them there were four regional divisions – Northern, Midlands, South-East and South-West. The FA continues to tinker with the structure of the women’s game.
The Southern League had been the premier league outside the Football League since the 1890s, despite losing its first division clubs to the newly formed Football League Third Division in 1920. The formation of the Northern Premier League in 1968 was an attempt to match the Southern League. It was principally, but not entirely, an amalgamation of the Lancashire Combination (formed 1891) and the Cheshire County League (formed 1919).
The next logical step, particularly for those clubs who sought eventual entry to the Football League, was to form a nationwide non-league division. This came to pass in 1979 when leading clubs from the Southern League and the Northern Premier League formed the Alliance Premier League (APL). The Southern League and the Northern Premier Leagues continued to exist, acting as feeder leagues to the APL. This was the first tentative step towards a hierarchical structure in the non-league game.
The Isthmian League was included in this structure, initially sitting at the same level as the Southern League and the Northern Premier League. It had operated as a closed shop with a single division from 1905 until 1973 when it introduced a second division. This was presumably a pre-emptive move before the imminent demise of amateur football in 1974 to try to ensure its survival. A third division was added in 1977 (both divisions had 16 teams). It was the Athenian League that suffered from these changes when their leading teams went over to the Isthmian League during their period of expansion, and it eventually folded in 1984.
The structure of the FA Pyramid, as it came to be known in the 1990s, and its constituent leagues were subject to constant change and additions as it went on to include the FA Premier League and Football League at the top of the pyramid and further non-league and grassroots leagues at the base. In 2017 there were a total of 24 levels in the pyramid.
The Premier League proved to be a financial success, attracting ever larger sums of money from media companies to show live matches, with the bigger clubs becoming international brands. These riches have helped to attract the best players from Europe, Africa and South America. The downside of this business model is that there have been reduced opportunities for young English players to establish themselves in the top tier of the game with the potential knock-on effects on the national side.
The men’s game at the grassroots level has been in serious decline. In May 2013 Corinthian, who reports on local amateur soccer in the Liverpool Echo, wrote that twenty years previously there were three times the number of leagues and almost 5 times the number of teams on Merseyside. Similar articles on the decline of the local amateur game can be found elsewhere across the country. The reasons given for the decline of grassroots soccer include: the cost, both to the clubs and to the individual; the disappearance of a team ethos (replaced by a personal ethos); the varying times of Premier League matches which can get in the way of men who want to play in local amateur games and watch their idols; not to mention the smartphone with its various attendant distractions.
On the plus side there is the growing popularity of women’s football and the success of the FA Charter Standard accreditation scheme for the grassroots game which was launched in 2001. Accreditation is obtained by clubs and leagues that are judged to be well-run and sustainable, and which prioritise child protection, quality coaching and implementation of the FA’s Respect programme. Clubs may run teams which cater for children, youths and adults of both sexes.
There are three levels of FA Charter Standard Awards for clubs:
- FA Charter Standard Club for youth and adult clubs: the entry-level accreditation
- FA Charter Standard Development Club: for clubs clearly enhancing the quality and scope of their football offering
- FA Charter Standard Community Club: acknowledging the most advanced level of club development and football provision.
Berks and Bucks FA has a strong contingent of clubs at each of the three Charter levels. In the south east corner of Berkshire Berkshire County FC is an example of a FA Charter Standard Club. It was formed in 2016? when Sunninghill Saints and Bracknell Rovers merged, both clubs having been founded in 2009. They complemented each other, Sunninghill having a number of younger teams while Bracknell included several senior teams. Berkshire County FC had 34 teams in 2017, ranging from adult men and ladies through to under 6 teams.
Nearby Ascot United was founded in 1965 by a men’s team who originally played in Sunninghill. It has grown to become one of the largest Community football clubs in the UK with 1,000+ registered players and over 70 teams, embracing all ages and abilities from 5 year olds through to Vets.
- The maximum length of the ground shall be 200 yards, the maximum breadth shall be 100 yards, the length and breadth shall be marked off with flags; and the goals shall be defined by two upright posts, 8 yards apart, without any tape or bar across them.
- The winner of the toss shall have the choice of goals. The game shall be commenced by a place kick from the centre of the ground by the side losing the toss, the other side shall not approach within 10 yards of the ball until it is kicked off.
- After a goal is won the losing side shall kick off and goals shall be changed.
- A goal shall be won when the ball passes between the goal posts or over the space between the goal posts (at whatever height), not being thrown, knocked on, or carried.
- When the ball is in touch the first player who touches it shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground, in a direction at right angles with the boundary line and it shall not be in play until it has touched the ground.
- When a player has kicked the ball any one of the same side who is nearer to the opponent’s goal line is out of play and may not touch the ball himself nor in any way whatever prevent any other player from doing so until the ball has been played; but no player is out of play when the ball is kicked from behind the goal line.
- In case the ball goes behind the goal line, if a player on the side to whom the goal belongs first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick from the goal line at the point opposite the place where the ball shall be touched. If a player of the opposite side first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick (but at the goal only) from a point 15 yards from the goal line opposite the place where the ball is touched. The opposing side shall stand behind their goal line until he has had his kick.
- If a player makes a fair catch he shall be entitled to a free kick, provided he claims it by making a mark with his heel at once; ad in order to take such kick he may go as far back as he pleases, and no player on the opposite side shall advance beyond his mark until he has kicked.
- No player shall run with the ball.
- Neither tripping nor hacking shall be allowed and no player shall use his hands to hold or push his adversary.
- A player shall not throw the ball or pass it to another with his hands.
- No player shall take the ball from the ground with his hands while it is in play under any pretext whatever while it is in play.
- No player shall wear projecting nails, iron plates, or gutta percha on the soles or heels of his boots.
1872 Wanderers beat Royal Engineers
1873 Wanderers beat Oxford University
1874 Oxford University beat Royal Engineers
1875 Royal Engineers beat Old Etonians
1876 Wanderers beat Old Etonians
1877 Wanderers beat Oxford University
1878 Wanderers beat Royal Engineers
1879 Old Etonians beat Clapham Rovers
1880 Clapham Rovers beat Oxford University
1881 Old Carthusians beat Old Etonians
1882 Old Etonians beat Blackburn Rovers
1883 Blackburn Olympic beat Old Etonians
1884 Blackburn Rovers beat Queens Park (Scotland)
1885 Blackburn Rovers beat Queens Park (Scotland)
1886 Blackburn Rovers beat West Bromwich Albion
1887 Aston Villa beat West Bromwich Albion
1888 West Bromwich Albion beat Preston North End
1889 Preston North End beat Wolverhampton Wanderers
The full list of FA Cup finalists can be found here.
England (men’s team) has competed in the FIFA World Cup competitions since 1950. Its record in the 17 competitions that it has entered includes:
- winners in 1966
- semi finalists in 1990
- quarter finalists on six occasions
- group stage appearance on six occasions
- failure to qualify for the final stages on three occasions.
England has competed in the UEFA European Championships since 1964. Its record in the 14 competitions that it has entered includes:
- semi finalists in 1968 and 1996
- quarter finalists in 2004 and 2012
- failure to qualify for the final stages of the competition on five occasions.
Lurid tales, not necessarily believable, talk of the heads of defeated enemy or human skulls being used as balls in the earliest times.
More reasonably, animal bladders, often pig’s bladder, came to be used. They could be filled with cork shavings or similar materials. These balls tended to be plum-shaped, not round. The bladders eventually came to be covered with leather for better shape retention.
Charles Goodyear patented vulcanised rubber in 1836. This process gave the rubber strength, elasticity plus resistance to solvents and moderate amounts of heat and cold. He designed and made the first rubber based soccer ball in 1855. Richard Lindon introduced the first inflatable rubber bladder in 1862.
The 1863 association rules made no mention of the ball. It was 1872 before the rules were revised, dictating that the ball must be spherical and be between 27 and 28 inches in circumference.
Rugby was played with the same ball as association until 1870 when the introduction of rubber inner-tubes and the pliability of rubber produced a ball that was more egg-shaped. The RFU officially decided that ovalness was the compulsory shape for a rugby ball in 1892.
See this history of the soccer ball for further information.
Goal Nets were invented by John Brodie, a Liverpool engineer, who thought of the idea after witnessing a dispute over whether a goal had been scored at Everton’s match with Accrington Stanley in 1889. He applied for a patent in 1890. Liverpool Ramblers tried the nets out for him. The first version included bells which would ring when the ball hit the net. The bell did not ring and was therefore dispensed with. The first official FA trial took place in a North versus South game at Nottingham in 1891. Nets were subsequently used in the 1892 FA Cup Final between West Bromwich Albion and Aston Villa, and became widespread thereafter.
Pitch markings changed, as the laws were altered. The diagram below is taken from the 1905 Book of Football. It is also reproduced in the goalpostbooks.co.uk website.
It is normal practice to list books in alphabetic order of author’s name. However, I have listed them according to how much I have used the individual works, with my primary source at the top.
Russell, D., Football and the English, Carnegie Publishing, Preston, 1997
Morris, T., In A Class of Their Own: A History of English Amateur Football, Chequered Flag Publishing, Sheffield, 2015
GoldBlatt, D., The Ball is Round: A Global History of Football, Penguin Books, Clays ltd St. Ives, 2007 (first published by Viking in 2006)
Wilson, J., Inverting the Pyramid, Orion, London, 2013
Russell, J., Liverpool Ramblers AFC: The Complete History, 2013
The text incorporates various links to articles which can be found on the Internet. A list of further links follows, grouped by topic.
Health & Fitness History – ancient sports
FIFA’s History of Football – Britain, the home of Football
FIFA’s History of Football – Global Growth
FIFA’s History of the Laws
History of the FA
Wikipedia – Medieval Football
Wikipedia – History of football in England
Wikipedia – History of association football
Gravesham Trophy Centre – The History of Football
Footballnetwork.org – History of Football
Rugbyfootballhistory.com – Origins of Rugby
Other old games of football
The History of the Soccer Ball
Wikipedia – Ball (association football)
Wikipedia – Rugby Ball
Wikipedia – History of Football Boots
Wikipedia – Shin guards
Goalpostbooks.co.uk – The Evolution of the Football Field
Football-stadiums.co.uk – How Football Pitches Have Changed Through History
Wikipedia – Lawn Mower
Fourfourtwo – The Weird and Wonderful History of Goal Posts
Pundit Arena – John Alexander Brodie & the Creation of Football Nets
Crisis in adult grass roots football – Owen Gibson in The Guardian
Rochdale’s amateur football league faces crisis
BBC Sport – Cost of playing and poor pitches puts off amateur footballers
Is Merseyside amateur football dying a slow death?
Where did it all go wrong for grassroots football?
Already detailed in the bibliography section, I have made heavy use of the writings of Dave Russell and Terry Morris.
When considering which internet link to use,where there is a choice, I have tended to select a link which I consider will have a longer life (if there is such a thing in the world of the Internet!). This has resulted in many links to Wikipedia.
The author of the 1863 laws of the game image is Adrian Roebuck, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=23877204
Please contact me if you suspect that any of the images infringe copyright.
All errors are mine.
Version 0.1 – January 12th, 2018 – mega drafty!
Version 0.2 – January 16th, 2018 – slightly less drafty
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